An exploratory mixed methods study of the development of self-efficacy, attitudes, knowledge, and skills for master’s level school-based internship students attending play therapy supervision

  • Ryan P Holliman Dallas Counseling & Treatment Center
  • Helen Maher Texas Woman's University
  • Pedro J Blanco Tarleton State University


The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the development of attitudes, skills, and knowledge regarding play therapy during a school-based play therapy internship experience.  Six graduate students in a counseling program participated in a play therapy internship.  They were administered the PTAKSS-Revised (Kao & Change, 2007), an instrument that measures attitudes, knowledge and skills of play therapy.  In addition, participants completed the Counseling Activities Self Efficacy Scale on a weekly basis.  Participants also participated in qualitative interviews at the conclusion of their Experience. The findings indicated that participants had an initial drop in feelings of self-efficacy, followed by consistent growth.  Themes that participants focused on included: Assuming a Therapeutic Role, Growth, and Conflict in their Role. Implications for practice and future research is discussed.